Title: Malay entrepreneurship: historical, governmental, and cultural antecedents

Authors: Zafar U. Ahmed, Abdul Jumaat Mahajar, Ilan Alon

Addresses: Texas A&M University at Commerce, PO Box 3011, Commerce, TX 75429, USA. ' Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia. ' Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Avenue - 2722, Winter Park, FL 32789, USA.

Abstract: This paper provides a review on the history of Malay entrepreneurs, both before and after independence. It also provides conceptualisation of Malaysian entrepreneurship in the context of government incentives, cultural traits, management systems, and the dimensions of organisational culture as an element of entrepreneurship. The characteristics of Malaysian culture are covered with special reference to the value systems inherent within Malaysian and Malay management practices. The understanding of Malay entrepreneurship can help researchers form a generalised theory of entrepreneurship in developing countries, with particular emphasis on Asia.

Keywords: Malaysia; ethnic entrepreneurship; economic factors; social factors; governmental incentives; business development; organisational culture; Malay entrepreneurs; Malaysian culture; management practice; developing countries.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2005.006524

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 2005 Vol.5 No.3/4, pp.168 - 186

Published online: 20 Mar 2005 *

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