Title: Finite element solution of mixed convection flow of a nanofluid over a vertical stretching sheet with power law containing metal oxide nanoparticles

Authors: Puneet Rana; Rama Bhargava

Addresses: Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India ' Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India

Abstract: Steady, two dimensional, mixed convection laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible nanofluid over a semi-infinite vertical power law stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The velocity and temperature of the sheet are assumed to vary in a power-law form. The resulting nonlinear governing equations (obtained with the Boussinesq approximation) have been solved, using a robust, extensively validated, Galerkin finite element method (FEM) for spherical shaped nanoparticles with volume fraction up to 4%, with associated boundary conditions. Different water-based nanofluids containing metal oxide nanoparticles, i.e., CuO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are taken into consideration. Nanofluids effectively enhance the heat transfer and reduce the skin friction as compared to pure water in the present problem. The effects of the various other parameters are discussed to achieve better control on the rate of heat transfer.

Keywords: incompressible nanofluids; boundary layers; stretching sheet; mixed convection; finite element method; FEM; power law; metal oxide nanoparticles; nanotechnology; laminar flow; heat transfer; skin friction.

DOI: 10.1504/IJANS.2014.065144

International Journal of Applied Nonlinear Science, 2014 Vol.1 No.3, pp.207 - 229

Received: 05 May 2011
Accepted: 19 Sep 2011

Published online: 28 Oct 2014 *

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