Authors: Heiko Degen; Ali Mostashari; Maik Maurer
Addresses: Institute for Product Development, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching, Germany ' School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, 07030-5991 Hoboken, USA ' Institute for Product Development, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching, Germany
Abstract: In this paper, we present a quantified system dynamics model simulating the adoption of smart grid technologies such as electric vehicles, PV systems and smart meters in a mid-sized urban system and the resulting impact on the CO2 emissions. We also analyse the impact of different subsidies on the adoption and calculate the effectiveness regarding public and private spending on these technologies in order to derive a strategy for policy making. The results show that even in an ideal scenario the emissions cannot be reduced enough to outweigh additional emissions caused by the population growth. Hence smart grid technologies can only be one part of a greater strategy in order to make cities more sustainable.
Keywords: smart grid; emission savings; electric vehicles; photovoltaics; smart meters; system dynamics; sociotechnical systems; STS; urban environments; simulation; CO2; carbon dioxide; carbon emissions; population growth; sustainable cities; sustainable development; sustainability.
International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, 2014 Vol.10 No.1, pp.1 - 20
Received: 21 Aug 2013
Accepted: 15 Jan 2014
Published online: 09 Oct 2014 *