Title: Understanding a firm's choice for openness: strategy as determinant

Authors: Karoline Bader; Ellen Enkel

Addresses: Zeppelin University, Dr. Manfred Bischoff Institute of Innovation Management of Airbus Group, Am Seemoser Horn 20, 88045 Friedrichshafen, Germany ' Zeppelin University, Dr. Manfred Bischoff Institute of Innovation Management of Airbus Group, Am Seemoser Horn 20, 88045 Friedrichshafen, Germany

Abstract: In the corporate landscape, some firms benefit from open innovation whereas others gain more advantage from a closed innovation model. Why do some firms benefit more than others from openness? A firm's strategy, which includes market and innovation orientation as well as internal structures and processes, is likely to be indicative of an adequate degree of firm openness and a well-considered selection of open innovation approaches. By analysing 25 firms according to three proactive strategy archetypes of innovation management, we identified distinctive behaviours regarding open and closed innovation activities. The three archetypes present an adequate degree of openness, adjusted to each archetype's strategic characteristics. Innovation managers can learn from this study how to skilfully link innovation models with each other as well as which degree of firm openness may be beneficial in order to reach a desired level of innovation performance. Furthermore, they can understand which open innovation activities are characteristic of a specific proactive strategy archetype of innovation management.

Keywords: open innovation; degree of openness; strategy archetypes; innovation management; innovation activities; innovation models; innovation performance.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2014.064590

International Journal of Technology Management, 2014 Vol.66 No.2/3, pp.156 - 182

Received: 05 Mar 2013
Accepted: 06 Feb 2014

Published online: 19 Aug 2014 *

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