Authors: W. Johnson, N.K. Gupta, A.G. Mamalis
Addresses: Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ' Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology, Dehli, India. ' Lehrstuhl und Institut fur Fertigungstechnik und spanende Werkzeugmaschinen, Technische Universitat, Hannover, West Germany
Abstract: A rectangular box, with an open top and containing sand to a given uniform depth, was swung, pendulum- like, from different heights and made to stop suddenly when it reached the vertical position by impinging against a non-rebounding stop. The length and height of the box, as well as the depth of sand in it, were varied in the different experiments. The volume of sand spilled was measured and related to the speed of impact of the box and other parameters. Observations highly relevant to the fundamental mechanics of the flow of grained materials (e.g. showing the sand surface and the internal movement of the sand after impact) are presented. Formulae correlating many of the measurements are given, which should be of help and significance in assessing the degree of spillage that occurs on impact of a truck.
Keywords: sand spillage; rectangular containers; axial collision; material re-distribution; grid deformation; slip lines; spilled volume; speed impact; pile-up; flow; sand movement; truck spillage; vehicle accidents; vehicle collisions.
International Journal of Vehicle Design, 1979 Vol.1 No.1, pp.61 - 73
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