Title: The use of barium-containing fuel additives for smoke suppression in diesel engines

Authors: N.A. Apostolescu, R.D. Matthews, R.F. Sawyer

Addresses: Polytechnic Institute, Bucharest 7, Romania. ' Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ' Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

Abstract: The use of a fuel additive containing barium for suppressing smoke in diesel engines was investigated. Effects on particulate reduction, other pollutant emissions and performance were explored for a range of speeds and loads. The particulate emissions were analysed gravimetrically and reported in terms of particle concentration and emission index. It was found that the barium additive was efficient in reducing the total mass of particulate emissions with a maximum reduction of 40% and an average reduction of 23% in the emission index. The efficiency of the additive was a function of the speed of the engine and the road. The additive had no significant effect on other engine performance and emission parameters. Public health aspects of the use of the additive were also examined. From the engine design and public health perspectives, use of barium additives may be the most advantageous method of suppressing smoke emissions if a method can be found to maximize the conversion of the barium to barium sulphate.

Keywords: fuel additives; barium sulphate; nitric oxide; diesel smoke; smoke suppression; diesel engines; diesel fuel; emissions index; engine performance; public health; engine design; air pollution; smoke particles; smoke formation mechanism; toxicology risks.

DOI: 10.1504/IJVD.1979.061224

International Journal of Vehicle Design, 1979 Vol.1 No.1, pp.37 - 47

Published online: 25 May 2014 *

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