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Title: Biotechnology: a case of delayed international convergence?

Authors: Jorge Niosi

Addresses: Department of Management and Technology, Canada Research Chair on the Management of Technology, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), P.O. Box 8888 Station Centre-Ville, Montreal H3C 3P8, Canada

Abstract: Catching up and leapfrogging regularly occur in capitalist economies, both at the level of entire countries and specific industries. The USA has taken the lead in biopharmaceuticals and has kept it for over fifty years. Biotechnology is now helping the US pharmaceutical industry to keep its global leadership patent and product figures for biotechnology drugs indicate that the USA is keeping its lead, and is not going to be left behind by any other nation, advanced or emerging, in the foreseeable future.

Keywords: biotechnology drugs; catching up; leapfrogging; public policy; biotechnology policy; emerging countries; USA leadership; United States; biotechnology drug approval.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBT.2014.059648

International Journal of Biotechnology, 2014 Vol.13 No.1/2/3, pp.5 - 21

Accepted: 19 Mar 2013
Published online: 07 Jun 2014 *

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