Title: The role of entrepreneurial risks in the intercultural context: a study of MBA students in four nations

Authors: Ricarda B. Bouncken; Beate Cesinger; Sascha Kraus

Addresses: University of Bayreuth, Prieserstr. 2, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany ' Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier Business School, 2300, Avenue des Moulins, 34185 Montpellier, France ' University of Liechtenstein, Institute for Entrepreneurship, Fürst-Franz-Josef-Strasse, FL-9490 Vaduz, Liechtenstein

Abstract: One of the main roots of international entrepreneurship is concerned with international and cross-cultural effects of the entrepreneurial process. This survey of 645 MBA students from different countries and cultural backgrounds examines cultural effects on entrepreneurship by exploring entrepreneurial intention and associated risks. In particular, we research the effects of (a) power distance and (b) individualism on entrepreneurial intentions across different nations. Our results reveal: first, power distance and individualism influence the intent to found and the intent to found in a team; second, different risks associated with entrepreneurship influence the relationship between cultural values and the general entrepreneurial intention, as well as the intention to found in a team. Insufficient internal resources, lack of external resources and the entrepreneurial context moderate the relationship between culture and the founding intent in several and diverse directions. Thus, culture plays a role in entrepreneurship while the relationship between power distance and individualism is complex.

Keywords: international entrepreneurship; individualism; power distance; entrepreneurial risks; entrepreneurial intention; intercultural study; MBA students; cross-cultural effects; culture.

DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2014.058483

European Journal of International Management, 2014 Vol.8 No.1, pp.20 - 54

Available online: 30 Dec 2013 *

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