Title: Major environmental problems facing the Hawaiian Islands: management, policy, and technology transfer options
Authors: David Mortz, Chittaranjan Ray, Ravi K. Jain
Addresses: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. ' Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. ' School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA
Abstract: Located almost in the centre of the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is one of the most isolated, yet populous places on earth. In spite of its isolation, Hawaii has many environmental problems that are similar to those faced by other states in the mainland. The isolation of Hawaii has allowed not only rare and unique environments for many flora and fauna but has also given rise to a multitude of local environmental issues. Within 30 miles on the island of Hawaii, ecosystems range from marine coral reefs to snow-capped mountains. The world|s wettest spot, Mt. Waialeale on the island of Kauai, receives over 430 inches of rain per year. Hundreds of different soil types are spread across 6400 square miles with a 750-mile coastline (a coastline almost as long as California|s). The most serious issues concern Hawaii|s unique ||biodiversity|| and the threats caused by invasive alien species. Miconia weed, loud tree frogs, and dengue fever spread by alien mosquitoes, to name but a few problems with alien species, have received much publicity in recent years. Contamination of ground water with organic chemicals, pollution of coastal waters with sediments and pathogens from runoff, presence of numerous chemicals in active and former Department of Defense (DoD) sites are other challenges. Remediation of contaminated soil and ground water appears to have a major market share of the environmental industry. This paper contains a research study, which identifies major environmental problems facing the Hawaiian Islands and discusses the management, policy, and technology transfer options for addressing these problems.
Keywords: Hawaii; invasive species; Miconia; basal groundwater; salt water intrusion; coastal zone management; Mamala Bay; water reuse; volcanic air pollution; Island of Kahoolawe; Department of Defense; environmental impact; ecosystems; biodiversity; groundwater contamination; water pollution; technology transfer; environmental management; environmental policy.
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 2005 Vol.4 No.1, pp.79 - 104
Published online: 06 Dec 2004 *Full-text access for editors Full-text access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article