Authors: Praveen K. Das
Addresses: B.I. Moody III College of Business Administration, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
Abstract: Bhardwaj and Brooks (1993) and Kim and Burnie (2002) look at the size effect during expansion and recession but come to different conclusions. While Bhardwaj and Brooks report reversal of size effects, Kim and Burnie show that the size effect is strong during economic expansion. A possible reason for these conflicting conclusions might be model misspecification. Both studies use a single-factor CAPM model to calculate the average returns. In this paper, the Fama-French three-factor model with betas conditioned on the market states is used. It has been found that the reverse size effect is limited to growth stocks. The size effect among value stocks is observed in expansion as well as recession. Furthermore, regression results using the three-factor model with time-varying betas show that there is a negative book-to-market premium.
Keywords: risk premiums; bull markets; bear markets; up markets; down markets; dual betas; size effects; average returns; CAPM model; three-factor models; modelling.
American Journal of Finance and Accounting, 2013 Vol.3 No.1, pp.57 - 76
Received: 30 Jul 2013
Accepted: 19 Aug 2013
Published online: 12 Oct 2013 *