Title: The happiness-increasing strategies scales and well-being in a sample of Swedish adolescents

Authors: Ali Al Nima; Trevor Archer; Danilo Garcia

Addresses: Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Box 500, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden ' Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Box 500, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Education and Sport Science, Linneaus University, SE 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden ' Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Wallinsgatan 8, SE 431 41 Mölndal, Gothenburg, Sweden

Abstract: In an adolescent sample, the present study examines the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) found by Tkach and Lyubomirsky (2006), gender differences, and the relationship between the strategies and subjective and psychological well-being measured a year after the H-ISS. A principal axis factoring using an oblique rotation procedure estimated the eight factors, which partially differed from those found earlier: social interaction, mental control, partying, religion, self-directed, instrumental goal pursuit, active leisure, and prevented activities. Girls used social interaction, mental control, partying, and religion more frequently than boys. Boys scored higher in prevented activities. The strategies accounted for 34% of the variance in life satisfaction, 43% of positive affect, 18% of negative affect, and 28% of psychological well-being. The study suggests that, with slight modifications, the H-ISS can be used among adolescents to measure individual differences in behaviour that increase positive experiences over time.

Keywords: adolescents; happiness; happiness-increasing strategies; subjective well-being; SWB; psychological well-being; PWB; Sweden; young people; youth; gender differences; social interaction; mental control; partying; religion; goal pursuit; active leisure; prevented activities; self-directed.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHD.2013.055647

International Journal of Happiness and Development, 2013 Vol.1 No.2, pp.196 - 211

Received: 06 Feb 2013
Accepted: 25 Mar 2013

Published online: 19 Jul 2014 *

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