Title: An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

Authors: Shahamak Rezaei; Marco Goli; Léo-Paul Dana

Addresses: Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark ' Metropolitan University College, Kronprinsesse Sofiesvej 35, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark ' Montpellier Research in Management, GSCM Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier Business School, 2300 Avenue des Moulins, 34185 Montpellier Cedex 4, France

Abstract: This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety of sectors, including the building sector, cleaning houses, delivery jobs, garage business, horticulture, hotels, industrial cleaning, and social work.

Keywords: Belgium; migrant workers; underground economy; illegal economy; illegal immigrants; illegal employment; undocumented employment; black economy; foreign workers.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2013.055601

International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 2013 Vol.11 No.2, pp.159 - 170

Published online: 21 Nov 2013 *

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