Title: Repellent voids for improving geographical routing efficiency in wireless sensor networks

Authors: Mohamed Aissani; S. Bouznad; S.E. Allia; A. Hariza

Addresses: Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria ' Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria ' Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria ' Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria

Abstract: The geographical routing suffers from communication voids in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Thus, several void-handling techniques are proposed in the literature, but they are limited in case of critical applications. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach handling both open and closed voids by using three complementary mechanisms. The first mechanism orients each packet that arrives on the network boundary toward the network middle by using the shortest path leading to the sink. The second mechanism is used by a node located on the boundary of a closed void to orient the received packets in optimal paths toward the sink. The third mechanism uses repellent forces generated by each closed void to repulse the packets from its boundary. To discharge the boundary nodes, our approach defines an announcement zone around each closed void and uses a two-hop forwarding mode in each boundary node. Our proposals achieved good performance.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks; WSNs; void handling techniques; real-time routing; communication voids; SPEED protocol; repellent voids; geographical routing efficiency.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2013.055517

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems, 2013 Vol.11 No.2, pp.172 - 197

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 18 Jun 2013 *

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