Title: Utilisation of shale oil by the extraction and retorting of oil shale

Authors: M.Z.A. Anabtawi, N. Hilal

Addresses: Chemical Engineering Department, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town, Bahrain. ' School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Abstract: Extraction of the bitumen fraction of oil shale was carried out using two different solvents, chloroform and toluene. Oil shale of 4.0 mm particle size from the El-Lajjun area in Jordan was used in this study. The solvents were recovered by distillation. The spent shale was retorted using a special retort and shale oil (Kerogen) was recovered. The quantity of the hydrocarbon was compared with that produced by using a Fischer Assay retort. When chloroform was used as solvent, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.034 g/g of oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.099 g/g of oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.133 g/g and with 86.4% of the solvent recovered. When toluene was used as solvent it was found that the amount of bitumen extracted was 0.026 g/g oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.116 g/g oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.142 g/g and with 94.7% of the solvent recovered. The quantities of oil recovered using both solvents were higher than that recovered using the Fischer Assay retort where only 0.106 g/g oil shale were obtained.

Keywords: extraction; oil shale; retorting; shale oil; bitumen fraction; chloroform; toluene; distillation; solvents.

DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2004.005532

International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 2004 Vol.4 No.3, pp.199 - 207

Available online: 14 Oct 2004 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article