Authors: Florence Hella, Jean-Francois Schouller, Michel Tisserand
Addresses: Service Ergonomie et Psychologie Industrielle, Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, B.P. 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex, France. ' Service Ergonomie et Psychologie Industrielle, Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, B.P. 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex, France. ' Service Ergonomie et Psychologie Industrielle, Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, B.P. 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex, France
Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to study the effect of the partial restriction of visibility from an industrial vehicle in zones where visual information is sought, on the steering of the vehicle, its driving speed, and the possibility of predicting the movement of a pedestrian ready to cross in front of the vehicle. Eighteen subjects drove a simulated vehicle over a closed circuit consisting of 6 straight and 5 curved sections. The simulator consisted of a driver|s seat, a steering wheel, an accelerator pedal, a microcomputer and a large video screen. A pedestrian was present on the shoulder of 4 of the 6 straight sections of the circuit. Only some of the pedestrians crossed in front of the simulated vehicle. Different-sized horizontal black bars (visual masks) were interposed between the driver|s eyes and the external environment. The following variables were analysed: average deviations from the trajectory and speed, average amplitude of horizontal and vertical displacement of the head to avoid the visual mask, collisions with the pedestrian. The results showed how the systematic surveillance of the environment is organised in situations of reduced visibility. The active displacement of the head is one of the strategies used by the subjects. The data also showed the importance of perceptual anticipation, which was used to implement an efficient programme of action to avoid collisions or a situation of conflict.
Keywords: driver workplace; ergonomics; human factors; mobile machinery; reduced visibility; partial restriction; industrial vehicles; vehicle steering; vehicle speed; pedestrian movement prediction; visual information; simulation; collision avoidance; conflict avoidance.
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems, 1997 Vol.4 No.2/3/4, pp.108 - 124
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