Authors: L. Palkovics, M. El-Gindy, H.B. Pacejka
Addresses: Centre for Surface Transportation Technology, National Research Council of Canada, Canada. ' Centre for Surface Transportation Technology, National Research Council of Canada, Canada. ' Vehicle Research Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Abstract: A considerable amount of work has been done in the area of tyre modelling, using wide variety of different approaches that range from pure theoretical modelling to fully empirical formulae fitted to measured points. In this paper a new approach is examined using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to create a non-linear mapping between the steady-state input and output characteristics of a tyre. The quality and speed of computation by ANN are compared to those of Pacejka|s Magic Formula for tyres, which has been developed for the characterisation of a tyre cornering properties. In the paper, the applicability of the ANN to the pure cornering characteristic of a tyre is investigated, and both steady-state models are implemented in a simple vehicle model. The vehicle behaviour is investigated during a severe evasive path-follow manoeuvre and a steady-state cornering assuming quasi-static load transfer between the two side tyres. The steady-state tyre characteristics are useful in various applications where the road excitation can be neglected. However, there is a need for combining a tyre|s in-plane and out-of-plane dynamics. In the second part of the paper, the cornering characteristic of a tyre running on an uneven road surface is analysed. The resulted lateral forces are compared to those given by the extended version of the Pacejka|s Magic Formula. The behaviour of this ||Neuro-Tyre|| is also investigated by implementing it in a realistic computer simulation model of a single vehicle, which is subjected to steering manoeuvre on variety of road surfaces.
Keywords: artificial neural networks; ANNs; tyre modelling; dynamic loads; vehicle dynamics; vehicle simulation; tyre cornering; vehicle behaviour; uneven surfaces; road roughness.
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems, 1996 Vol.3 No.1/2/3/4, pp.323 - 345
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