Title: Bridging formal and informal lifelong learning using a soccer game metaphor

Authors: Lynette Nagel; A. Seugnet Blignaut

Addresses: Department for Education Innovation, University of Pretoria, IT Building, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa ' School of Continuing Teacher Education (SCTE), Faculty of Education Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Building B11, Private Bag X6001, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa

Abstract: People need to engage in lifelong learning to be part of the knowledge society, while educational institutions cannot formally provide continuous ongoing, personally defined learning that addresses immediate workplace-based needs. Designing a formal online post-graduate course around a soccer game metaphor, we incorporated the characteristics of informal lifelong learning, namely peer facilitated and collaborative processes, formative and reflective assessment, learning community and open-ended curriculum driven by learner-determined goals. Students used the metaphor in their social discussions to denote collaborative learning, community, personal purposes and transformative reflective learning. The metaphor familiarised and prepared students for lifelong informal learning by bridging the gap from formal learning.

Keywords: lifelong formal learning; lifelong informal learning; metaphor; bridging; web based learning; facilitator; collaborative learning; peer feedback; authentic context; lifelong learning; continuing education; e-learning; online learning; electronic learning; soccer games; football matches; formative assessment; reflective assessment; learning communities; open-ended curriculum.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCEELL.2013.054292

International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 2013 Vol.23 No.2, pp.194 - 208

Published online: 30 Dec 2013 *

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