Title: Adding memory condition to learning classifier systems to solve partially observable environments

Authors: Zhao Xiang Zang; De Hua Li; Jun Ying Wang

Addresses: Institute for Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan Hubei, 430074, China ' Institute for Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan Hubei, 430074, China ' College of Computer and Information Technology, China Three Gorges University, Yichang Hubei, 443000, China

Abstract: Within the paradigm of learning classifier systems, extended classifier system (XCS) is outstanding. However, the original XCS has no memory mechanism and can only learn optimal policy in Markovian environments, where the optimal action is determined solely by the state of current sensory input. But in practice, most environments are partially observable environments with respect to agent's sensation, and they form the most general class of environments: non-Markov environments. In these environments, XCS either fails completely, or only develops a suboptimal policy, since it is memoryless. In this paper, we develop a new learning classifier system based on XCS, named 'XCSMM', which adds an internal message to XCS as an internal memory, and then extends the classifier with a memory condition that is used to sense the internal memory. XCSMM holds a simple and clear memory mechanism, which is easy to understand and implement. Besides, four sets of different complex maze problems have been employed to test XCSMM. Experimental results show that XCSMM is able to evolve optimal or suboptimal solutions in most non-Markovian environments.

Keywords: learning classifier systems; LCSs; extended classifier systems; XCS; internal memory; partially observable environments; aliasing state.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCAT.2013.053425

International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, 2013 Vol.46 No.4, pp.345 - 352

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 21 Apr 2013 *

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