Title: Demand for private tutoring in a free education country. The case of Sri Lanka

Authors: Asankha Pallegedara

Addresses: Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Kuliyapitiya, Postal Code: 60200, Sri Lanka

Abstract: Private tutoring is a growing phenomenon among Sri Lankan students. We examine the demand for private tutoring in Sri Lanka using two rounds of nationwide household surveys. We find that the demand for private tutoring in Sri Lanka has increased over time. Moreover, results reveal that private tutoring expenditure has changed from a luxury good in 1995-1996 to a necessity good in 2006-2007. We believe that increased demand for private tutoring is mainly driven by intense social competition to enrol in popular secondary schools and universities coupled with the increased income of parents owing to the expansion of the middle classes to engage in this competition.

Keywords: public education; private tutoring; educational policy; free education; education for all; Sri Lanka; tutors; household surveys; tutoring expenditure; luxury goods; necessity goods; social competition; secondary schools; higher education; universities; parental income; parents; middle classes; education economics; educational development.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2012.052321

International Journal of Education Economics and Development, 2012 Vol.3 No.4, pp.375 - 393

Available online: 26 Feb 2013 *

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