Title: EA-SPEED: energy-aware real-time routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

Authors: M. Aissani; S. Bouznad; A. Fareb; M.A. Laidoui

Addresses: Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria ' Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria ' Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria ' Computer Science Unit, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), P.O. Box 17, Bordj-El-Bahri, 16111, Algiers, Algeria

Abstract: We propose two simple mechanisms that aim at improving the energy efficiency of SPEED; the well-known real-time routing protocol dedicated for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The first mechanism calculates the expected end-to-end delay on the basis of previous hops' delay and drops a packet if such expected delay is greater than the packet deadline. By dropping the useless delayed packets, the mechanism increases fluidity of links and economises energy of nodes. The second mechanism extends the component stateless non-deterministic geographic forwarding (SNGF) of the SPEED protocol. While the original SNGF performs energy balancing by randomly selecting the next hop from the forwarding candidate neighbours set (FS), the proposed mechanism makes use of a decision parameter which takes into account both the relay speed and the residual energy of the candidates. Thus, it prolong the network lifetime without degrading the real-time packet delivery performance. Also, it uses a low-cost algorithm updating continually the residual energy of neighbours in a node by exploiting both the overhearing mechanism and the location beaconing which are implemented in the SPEED protocol. Associated with SPEED, the proposed mechanisms achieved good performance in terms of node energy balancing and network energy consumption without degrading the packet delivery ratio.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks; WSNs; real-time routing; energy efficiency; load balancing; SPEED protocol; energy-aware routing protocols; relay speed; residual energy; network lifetime; packet delivery performance; node energy balancing; network energy consumption.

DOI: 10.1504/IJICT.2013.052302

International Journal of Information and Communication Technology, 2013 Vol.5 No.1, pp.22 - 44

Available online: 26 Feb 2013 *

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