Title: Global supply chains as holistic systems: an expanded perspective

Authors: M.B. Neace; Tadeusz Gospodarek; Xin Gao Neace

Addresses: TheRainMakers-TBL, Mercer University, 5353 W. Desert Inn Road, #2060, Las Vegas, NV 89146 USA ' Walbrzych School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Ul. 1 Maja 131 Walbrzych 58-305, Walbrzych, Poland ' TheRainMakers-TBL, 5353 W. Desert Inn Road, #2060, Las Vegas, NV 89146, USA

Abstract: Global supply chains are a dominant theme in business academic literature. Most writers purport a holistic perspective. Our review of their literature found this untrue. Their focus on primary players excludes other relevant agents that make significant contributions to supply chain performance. We present a holistic three-layer model: primary players, infrastructure enterprises and a third layer of governance and an array of organisations, such as unions, financial institutions, and NGOs, all embedded in their surroundings that continually change as products/services move to final users. Strategic planning for global supply chains must include relevant agents from all three layers and their surroundings to be effective. Our literature review and holistic three-layer model address this problem.

Keywords: global supply chains; SCM; supply chain management; holistic systems; hard infrastructures; soft infrastructures; governance organisations; integrated strategies; information sharing; collaboration; logical layers; primary players; supply chain performance; holistic models; three-layer models; infrastructure enterprises; trade unions; financial institutions; NGOs; non-governmental organisations; changing surroundings; products; services; final users; strategic planning; relevant agents; complexity; dynamic systems; adaptive systems; paradigms; economics; business research.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2013.051896

International Journal of Economics and Business Research, 2013 Vol.5 No.2, pp.165 - 182

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 10 Jan 2013 *

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