Title: Commercial diplomacy: an integrative framework

Authors: Olivier Naray

Addresses: Université de Neuchâtel, Institut de l'entreprise (IENE) A.-L. Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Abstract: The author aims to undertake exploratory theory building by suggesting a framework in which relationships between input-process-output may be further researched. The approach serves as a tool to understand value creation by commercial diplomacy. First, the author traces back the origins and the rationale of commercial diplomacy and introduces the relevant definitions. Then literature, concepts and theories are reviewed. Managerial concerns such as organisational arrangements, developmental factors and the commercial diplomat's individual features are integrated in an input-process-output framework. Inputs are divided into capabilities and resources such as organisational arrangements, geographic localisation of the foreign post and the commercial diplomat's individual features such as education and business experience. The roles performed (the process) are identified as facilitation, advisory and representation 'FAR', creating value for stakeholders (outputs) such as relationship capital and networks, knowledge and influence. The input-process-output framework may invite research to develop constructs/variables and test relationships between variables.

Keywords: commercial diplomats; commercial diplomacy; trade promotion; economic diplomacy; export promotion; investment promotion; country image; country brand; exports; facilitation; advisory; representation; relationship capital; networks; knowledge; influence.

DOI: 10.1504/IJDIPE.2012.051684

International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy, 2012 Vol.1 No.2, pp.119 - 133

Published online: 25 Jan 2013 *

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