Title: Measuring stud and rubber friction on ice under laboratory conditions

Authors: Marko Rantonen; Ari Juhani Tuononen; Panu Sainio

Addresses: Department of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14300, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland. ' Department of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14300, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland. ' Department of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14300, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland

Abstract: A linear friction tester is used to test stud and rubber friction on ice. Studs are metallic objects inserted into tyre treads to improve winter tyre performance. Special small-scale rubber specimens, with and without studs, are used in this study. To begin, the device itself is presented and described. Testing methodologies and procedures were implemented and are presented in this paper. The influence of several operational conditions, including ambient temperature, stud geometry, number of studs, normal load and sliding velocity, are investigated and discussed. In addition, modern imaging tools are used in conjunction with the linear friction tester. A thermal camera shows frictional heating in the small-scale specimens. A high-speed camera is used to visualise and analyse the contact area during the sliding.

Keywords: linear friction tester; tyre friction; studded tyres; ice friction; rubber friction; frictional heating; stud friction; vehicle testing; tyre studs; tyre performance; winter tyres; ambient temperature; stud geometry; normal load; sliding velocity; imaging tools.

DOI: 10.1504/IJVSMT.2012.048447

International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, 2012 Vol.7 No.2, pp.194 - 207

Received: 24 Aug 2011
Accepted: 06 Dec 2011

Published online: 04 Aug 2012 *

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