Authors: James Marco; Nicholas D. Vaughan
Addresses: Department of Automotive Engineering, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK ' Department of Automotive Engineering, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK
Abstract: The High-Voltage (HV) network within an Electric Vehicle (EV) will typically comprise different energy sources such as fuel cells, batteries and ultracapacitors integrated together through the use of both unidirectional and bidirectional DC-DC converters. Given the multitude of feasible HV network designs, there are obvious advantages in having a unifying control architecture that facilitates the Energy Management (EM) control task. Within this paper, a control Reference Architecture (RA) is proposed that can be employed as a template for the design of the EM control function. Example EM control systems are presented each derived from the same RA, but relating to a different physical configuration of HV network. Simulation results are presented to verify the functional performance of the control systems. In each case, the design trade-offs associated with the functional performance of the EM strategy and the non-functional requirements of modularity and reusability are discussed.
Keywords: electric vehicles; HEVs; hybrid electric vehicles; reference control architecture; energy management; SysML; systems modelling language; systems engineering; object orientation; simulation; modularity; reusability; high voltage networks; vehicle design.
International Journal of Vehicle Design, 2012 Vol.58 No.2/3/4, pp.240 - 265
Received: 12 Jul 2010
Accepted: 30 Oct 2010
Published online: 18 Jun 2012 *