Title: HRV dynamics in four yogic-based meditation states using optimised AR model

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Sunkaria; Suresh Chandra Saxena; Kumar Vinod; Shirley Telles

Addresses: Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144011, Punjab, India ' Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (Uttranchal) 247667, India ' Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (Uttranchal) 247667, India ' Yoga Research Centre, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar (Uttranchal) 249402, India

Abstract: This study reports the quantification and comparison of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) dynamics during four yogic-based meditation states of cancalata, ekagrata, dharana and dhyana. For this, the Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded in 30 experienced male yoga practitioners (mean age ≅ 32 years, range 22-38 years, mean height ≅ 164 cm) in pre, during and post-sessions of these four meditation states and HRV was evaluated using optimised autoregressive (AR) technique. The sympatho-vagal balance (LF/HF ratio) became sympathetic tone (LF power) dominant during all four states but it was most strong during the state of cancalata. The vagal tone (HF power) was observed to be significantly low (p < 0.01) under ekagrata but it was significantly strong under state of dhyana (p < 0.01). The total variability (Ptotal (ms²)) was observed to be significantly high under dhyana in comparison with other states (p < 0.05). The mean heart rate (HR (bpm)) becomes low as we observed these four states in that order, but it was lowest under dhyana. The above-mentioned observation underlines the fact that each meditation state differentially affects the autonomic control branches but overall variability was observed to be the highest under state of dhyana.

Keywords: HRV; heart rate variability; cancalata; ekagrata; dharana; dhyana; optimised autoregressive modelling; meditation; low frequency power; high frequency power; LF/HF ratio; yoga; meditation; autonomic control.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBET.2012.047370

International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 2012 Vol.9 No.1, pp.45 - 59

Published online: 12 Dec 2014 *

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