Title: Macro-level perspective of consumer ethnocentrism: a panel data study in Turkey

Authors: Murat Hakan Altintas, Talha Harcar, Ismail Dulgeroglu, Selim Tuzunturk

Addresses: Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey. ' The Pennsylvania State University, Monaca, Pennsylvania, USA. ' Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey. ' Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

Abstract: This article analyses the relationship between the main antecedents of and imports/GNP ratio as a subtle reflector of macro-level consumer ethnocentrism (CE). We constructed a model that reflects the macro level ethnocentrism in a domestic country. This ratio expresses the economy openness of a domestic country. To this end, an original panel of EU15 countries| brand applications, tourists, direct investment on Turkey and technological gap between these countries and Turkey, competitiveness and media news about these countries has been constructed over the period 1998-2004. In order to examine this relationship, several econometric models for panel data are estimated. Pooled regression was chosen as the most appropriate model across the others. The main findings of the article, all antecedents have positive effects on imports/GNP ratio and all the parameters are found statistically significant. Panel data analysis suggests that registered brand name applications of EU15 countries on Turkey have a biggest effect and latter effect is media effect. This research shows, with its limitations, that granted brand names and media (newspaper) are important antecedents for macro level or economic-based CE.

Keywords: consumer ethnocentrism; macro level perspectives; economy openness; economic patriotism; Turkey; panel data; imports; GNP; gross national product; domestic countries; EU15; European Union; member states; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; Holland; Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom; UK; brand applications; tourists; tourism; direct investment; technological gaps; competitiveness; media news; econometric models; pooled regression; brand names; registered brands; media effects; newspapers; entrepreneurs; entrepreneurialism; management; sustainable development; sustainability.

DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2011.042893

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 2011 Vol.7 No.4, pp.402 - 421

Published online: 31 Jan 2015 *

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