Title: Seasonal stratification effects on risk quantification of contaminant spreading in a warm monomictic lake under different hydrodynamic conditions: a case study in Lake Constance, Germany

Authors: Gopal Chandra Saha, Maarten Felix, Jianbing Li, Ronald Wallen Thring

Addresses: Environmental Science and Engineering Programs, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada. ' Basin and Petroleum System Dynamics, Jacobs University, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen, Germany. ' Environmental Science and Engineering Programs, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada. ' Environmental Science and Engineering Programs, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada

Abstract: Seasonal stratification plays a significant role in contaminant spreading in a warm monomictic lake. If any accident related to pollutant spills occurs in a warm monomictic lake, different risk levels will result depending on the type of lake stratification, location of pollutant release, and hydrodynamic conditions. In this study, seasonal stratification effects on risk of contaminant spreading in the warm monomictic lake was investigated through simulating the distribution of tracers (contaminants) in Lake Constance under different hydrodynamic conditions when wind speed and wind direction were varied. All tracers were released at the lake bed around the drinking water intake of Bodensee-Wasserversorgung near Sipplingen, Germany. The modelling results illustrated that the arrival time of tracers at the drinking water intake was dependent on seasonal stratification, wind direction, wind speed, distance of tracer away from the water intake and the depth where tracer was released. During winter stratification, tracers arrived at the intake earlier than that during summer stratification due to lake mixing in winter. The arrival concentration level of tracer also varied in a complex manner depending on seasonal stratification and hydrodynamic condition.

Keywords: estuaries; modelling; ELCOM; Lake Constance; seasonal stratification; tracers; water quality; Germany; risk assessment; water pollution; warm monomictic lakes; hydrodynamics; pollutant release location; drinking water.

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2011.041005

International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 2011 Vol.15 No.1, pp.79 - 93

Published online: 28 Feb 2015 *

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