Title: National innovation system in a least developing country: the case of Pakistan

Authors: Iffat Batool Naqvi

Addresses: Mehran Institute of Science and Technology Development (MUISTD), Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET), Jamshoro, Pakistan

Abstract: This research paper is about the national innovation system of Pakistan. For recognising the structural characteristics of innovation systems, six major functions of generic types of institutions involved in the system are examined: policy formulation, performing research and development (R&D), financing R&D, promotion of human resource development, technology bridging and promotion of technological entrepreneurship. This framework is applied to innovation system in Pakistan, revealing that Pakistan has a very weak innovation system. While analysing the initiatives for science and technology development taken by government, e.g. liberalised policies, human development programme, investment plans and creation of industrial sector, this research argues about the presence of very weak or almost a complete absence of a innovation system. The major identified challenges to support innovation are the limited and blurred role of R&D organisation, formation of sharply focused innovation policies, political instability of government, capability building and low level of demand of technology. The policy suggestions are proposed to strengthen the extremely weak links of Pakistani academia, industry and government so that lessons can be draw for the other least developing countries.

Keywords: NIS; national innovation systems; institutions; innovation policy; least developing countries; Pakistan; national systems of innovation; policy formulation; research and development; R&D finance; human resource development; HRD; technology bridging; technological entrepreneurship.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTPM.2011.040402

International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 2011 Vol.11 No.2, pp.139 - 154

Published online: 31 Mar 2015 *

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