Title: Measuring self-regulated e-feedback, study approach and academic outcome of multicultural university students

Authors: Kenneth David Strang

Addresses: APPC International Marketing, Research Lab, Long Island, NY 11725, USA; University of Central Queensland, Arts, Business, Informatics & Education Faculty, Rockhampton, QLD 4702, Australia; Multicultural Research Centre, Sydney, NSW 2062, Australia

Abstract: This empirical study of multicultural university students uses an interdisciplinary model to measure how self-regulated e-feedback, as part of e-learning study approaches, impacts their academic outcome. Domestic culture comprised only 5% of total sample size (n = 546). While contemporary object-oriented learning management and virtual classroom software were used to deliver the e-learning, the focus of this study was entirely on explaining how e-feedback (reflected in study approach) and cultural background impacted grade. Multiple research methods were applied to create a structural equation model regression solution that was statistically significant and a good fit. Four factors dominated the model in predicting higher multicultural student outcome: collectivist and risk-taking cultural dispositions, along with deep as well as strategic study approaches. Qualitative reflections on the e-feedback suggest a synergistic e-learning design idea that leverages the dominant study approaches and student cultures.

Keywords: e-learning; electronic learning; study approaches; multicultural students; universities; higher education; self-regulated feedback; feedback measurement; academic outcomes; domestic culture; object-oriented learning; learning management; virtual classrooms; classroom software; online learning; world wide web; internet; cultural backgrounds; examination grades; structural equations; regression solutions; collectivist dispositions; risk-taking; deep studying; strategic study; Australia; synergistic design; dominant study approaches; student cultures; continuing education; engineering education; life-long learning; electronic feedback; e-feedback.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCEELL.2010.036818

International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 2010 Vol.20 No.2, pp.239 - 255

Published online: 09 Nov 2010 *

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