Title: Modes of international external technology innovation: evidence from a global sample

Authors: Malika Richards, Yi Yang

Addresses: Penn State University – Berks, Reading, PA 19610, USA. ' Management Department, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854, USA

Abstract: We investigate the factors that may influence a firm|s choice of external technology innovation in foreign countries based on the eclectic theory. With a sample of 1,094 overseas R&D collaborations in 42 countries by US companies, we examine the impact of three firm-level ownership endowments – technological competency, organisational slack, as well as location factors on such decisions. Our results show that industry relatedness between US companies and their overseas partners demonstrates significant moderator effects. Also, when expanding into culturally distant nations, US multinationals are much more likely to form R&D joint ventures or non-equity alliances than corporate venture capital investments.

Keywords: international R&D collaboration; governance mode; eclectic theory; strategic alliances; corporate venture capital; CVC; international joint ventures; research and development; external technology innovation; IJVs; technological competency; organisational slack; location factors; industry relatedness; R&D joint ventures; non-equity alliances.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSBA.2010.036093

International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, 2010 Vol.1 No.4, pp.337 - 363

Published online: 19 Oct 2010 *

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