Title: Strengthening science and technology capacities for indigenisation of technology: the Indian experience

Authors: Ashok Jain, V.P. Kharbanda

Addresses: Institute of Informatics and Communication, Delhi University South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110 021, India. NISTADS, Pusa, K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012, India

Abstract: India, since independence in 1947, had initiated policies and programmes for the development of indigenous capacities in Science and Technology as an integral part of its efforts at establishing a modern nation state. A five-year planning approach was adopted for economic and industrial development. The Indian experience of strengthening the Science and Technology capacities in the context of industrialisation as it has evolved over the various plan periods from 1947 to 2001 has been analysed. Strengthening of Science and Technology capacities is viewed as a process establishing innovation networks interconnecting science, innovation and industrial activities. Therefore, India|s policies and programmes for both Science and for Industry and the interrelationship between the two have been examined. It is shown that the Indian policies and programmes have evolved through five phases of development. In terms of strengthening of Science and Technology capacities, the phases have been characterised as Phase I: Infrastructure building, Phase II: Reorientation, Phase III: Promotion of indigenous technologies, Phase IV: Moving towards economic liberalisation and Phase V: Science and Technology in liberalised economy. Policies and programmes as they have evolved in each of the phases have been examined with illustrative examples. The growth of Science and Technology capacities for indigenisation of technology have been analysed to show the gradual emergence of innovation networks.

Keywords: India; technology indigenisation policy; indigenous science and technology capacities; globalisation; liberalisation; innovation networks.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSTM.2003.003429

International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 2003 Vol.4 No.3, pp.234 - 254

Available online: 14 Dec 2003 *

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