Title: In search of innovation, creativity and entrepreneurial spirit: evidence from the pharmaceutical industry

Authors: David Rygl, Markus G. Kittler, Tassilo Schuster

Addresses: Department of International Management, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 90403 Nuremberg, Germany. ' Stirling Management School, Business and Organisation Division, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. ' Department of International Management, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 90403 Nuremberg, Germany

Abstract: Creativity bundled with entrepreneurial spirit and resulting innovations can be regarded as major prerequisites for the generation of sustainable competitive advantage as well as drivers of firms| R&D activities. Nevertheless, on a global scale, these three prerequisites are often hampered by inflexible organisational structures in global firms. The subsequent article will analyse the organisational structure of selected R&D intense firms of the pharmaceutical industry using social network analysis. The paper will present an in-depth analysis of the firms involved and examine to what extent they provide the proposed structures to foster creativity, innovation and entrepreneurial spirit. In order to analyse reciprocity, role differentiation and network architecture (all to be considered as elements of creative and innovative organisations), this paper focuses on the three pharmaceutical firms Roche, Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline. Results show that not all characteristics of a network organisation are present at the firms analysed.

Keywords: creativity; entrepreneurial spirit; entrepreneurship; social network analysis; SNA; intra-organisational networks; pharmaceutical industry; competitive advantage; R&D; research and development; organisational structures; global firms; reciprocity; role differentiation; network architecture; Roche; Novartis; GlaxoSmithKline; business environment; globalisation; globalization; competiveness; innovation; Europe.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBE.2010.032714

International Journal of Business Environment, 2010 Vol.3 No.2, pp.179 - 201

Published online: 15 Apr 2010 *

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