Authors: Ryan Clarke
Addresses: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, Nanyang Technological University, South Spine S4, Level B4, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore
Abstract: This article examines India|s largest criminal syndicate – Dawood Ibrahim|s D-Company. Although D-Company is global, its primary areas of operation are Mumbai, Karachi and Dubai. The crime-terror nexus is explored in D-Company|s relationship with Pakistan|s inter-services intelligence (ISI). Two notable cases are: (1) ISI|s provision of weaponry to the Khalistan Movement in Punjab via underground networks and (2) ISI and D-Company|s joint effort that resulted in the 1993 Mumbai Blasts. Chinese arms in South Asia and the potential role of D-Company as a smuggler on behalf of ISI are then discussed. It is a relationship strengthened by Ibrahim|s refuge in Pakistan. This article argues that although the sources of weaponry in possession of Indian-Held Kashmir-based militant groups are many, Chinese arms are found to be the most prevalent and that these weapons are provided by Pakistan and smuggled into Indian-Held Kashmir via criminal syndicates like D-Company.
Keywords: arms smuggling; criminal syndicates; India; Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence; Kashmir; Pakistan; South Asia; terrorism; terrorists; D-Company; Dawood Ibrahim; Karachi; Dubai; crime-terror nexus; weapons; armaments; Khalistan Movement; Punjab; underground networks; terrorist attacks; bombs; explosives; 1993 Mumbai blasts; Bombay bombings; China; business; globalisation; Asia-Pacific; multi-disciplinary perspectives.
International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 2010 Vol.4 No.3, pp.264 - 278
Published online: 03 Mar 2010 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article