Title: Creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in Poland in the post-war period

Authors: Piotr Zientara

Addresses: 177/44 Chylonska, St., 81-007 Gdynia, Poland; Gdansk Higher School of Administration, 3 Wydmy, St., 80-656 Gdansk, Poland

Abstract: Drawing on Polish post-war experience, this paper explores the relationship between creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in an emerging economy that does not fare well in business-friendliness, innovativeness and competitiveness rankings. It conceptualises creativity and innovation in a variety of contexts and examines their implications from a multilevel perspective. The study argues that the pre-1989 political system had a double-edged impact on creativity. On the one hand, by fostering uniformity, the regime inhibited it. On the other, due to the shortages of goods, it unleashed Poles| extraordinary creativity, understood here as the capacity to act creatively and innovatively in the face of adverse circumstances. This equipped the Polish with an ability particularly useful in today|s demanding, globalisation-driven reality. Critically, we show how a hostile business environment coupled with a backward-looking education system affects innovation and entrepreneurship. Building on these insights, the paper concludes with a number of policy recommendations.

Keywords: creativity; entrepreneurship; innovation; Poland; emerging economies; hostile business environments; education systems.

DOI: 10.1504/IJDSRM.2009.031124

International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management, 2009 Vol.1 No.3/4, pp.299 - 325

Published online: 21 Jan 2010 *

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