Title: Reflections on an apprenticeship in skill development

Authors: Francis W. Wolek

Addresses: Villanova University, College of Commerce and Finance, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085-1678, USA

Abstract: This paper integrates a literature review with personal experience as an apprentice in the martial art of tai chi. In the classic apprenticeship, a master models a work process for novices to practice. These keystones of modelling and systematic practice have been widely used in education, craft and work. However, the internal learning that results from observation and practice is unclear. This paper offers a four-stage model of such learning, one that has implications for managing the novice|s growth of commitment and minimisation of anxiety.

Keywords: apprenticeship; competence development; skills development; know-how; tai chi; martial arts; learning models; novices; competencies.

DOI: 10.1504/IJCEELL.1999.030137

International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 1999 Vol.9 No.1, pp.20 - 29

Published online: 11 Dec 2009 *

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