Authors: A.V. Lowe
Addresses: Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Abstract: How is it that movements of goods within the United Kingdom may require the permission not only of the UK government but also of the United States government? This paper seeks to provide some answers to that question. It begins with the development of export controls since the end of the Second World War, via CoCom – the Co-ordinating Committee – an organization, technically independent of NATO, representing (eventually) most western European nations. This is followed by an outline of the main features of the current US and UK controls. The opposition of European states to some of the economic and political features of US controls is described. Although there is a broad consensus on the necessity for controlling exports for security considerations, it became apparent early on that the economic interests of the European partners, who relied heavily on export trade, differed from those of the USA, with their huge domestic markets. The paper concludes with some observations on various possible future developments.
Keywords: export controls; technology; US law; extra-territoriality; exporting; export embargoes; Europe; USA; United States; UK; United Kingdom.
International Journal of Technology Management, 1988 Vol.3 No.1/2, pp.71 - 85
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