Title: Licensing biotechnology

Authors: Brendan Fowlston

Addresses: Patent Manager, Delta Biotechnology, Nottingham, UK

Abstract: Biotechnology in general, and genetic engineering in particular, present problems in licensing due to the inherent complexity of biological systems. Further, the costs of bringing pharmaceutical products to the market is prohibitive for the smaller firm. A majority of biotechnology companies find that licensing offers a practical way to exploit their innovations. Licensing can be put to further use where there are conflicting claims to the ownership of an invention; when a university wishes to recover an R&D investment, or where a researcher wishes to retain control of biological materials released on a limited basis for research purposes. The problems of licensing in genetic engineering and biotechnology are illustrated by two different types of agreement: a full commercial exploitation agreement, and an agreement for the release of biological materials for further research.

Keywords: biotechnology licensing; genetic engineering; intellectual property; royalties; know-how; liabilities; commercial exploitation; research materials.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.1988.025955

International Journal of Technology Management, 1988 Vol.3 No.1/2, pp.51 - 61

Available online: 26 May 2009 *

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