Title: Technology and human resources in Europe after Maastricht

Authors: Patrizio Bianchi

Addresses: Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Strada Maggiore 45,40125 Bologna, Italy

Abstract: The new industrial policy approach of the European Community (EC) stresses that industrial adjustment has to be supported by the creation of a positive environment for inter-firm cooperation, the promotion of conditions for entrepreneurship and innovation, the full development of innovative opportunities, and the development of human capabilities (article 130 of the Treaty of Maastricht). Since the national systems of innovation are still very different throughout Europe, the EC decided in the late 1980s to reverse the convergence process from top-down to bottom-up, by introducing programmes which attempt to stimulate the creation of networks of innovators. This approach was clearly influenced by the debateon industrial districts and by the more general debate on innovation diffusion. It is based on the possibility of favouring aggregations of firms, research institutes, universities, framed in their own national contexts, but forced to cooperate in producing innovation.

Keywords: education; European Community; industrial policy; innovation policy; innovation systems; inter-firm cooperation; entrepreneurship; human capabilities; Treaty of Maastricht; innovation networks; innovation diffusion.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.1994.025578

International Journal of Technology Management, 1994 Vol.9 No.3/4, pp.314 - 331

Available online: 23 May 2009 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article