Title: Influence of tyre loading and inflation pressure on standing waves phenomenon using PAM-SHOCK
Authors: Y.P. Chang, M. El-Gindy, D.A. Streit
Addresses: The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, 201 Transportation Research Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, 201 Transportation Research Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, 201 Transportation Research Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Abstract: A full non-linear finite-element P185/70R14 passenger car radial-ply tyre model was developed and run on a 1.7-metre-diameter spinning test drum model up to 300 km/h in order to investigate the tyre transient response characteristics, i.e. the standing waves phenomenon. The virtual tyre/drum finite-element model was constructed and tested using the non-linear finite element analysis software, PAM-SHOCK. The tyre model was constructed in extreme detail with three-dimensional solid, layered membrane, and beam finite elements, incorporating over 18,000 nodes and 24 different types of material. In addition to the tyre model itself, the rim was also included and rotated with the tyre, with proper mass and rotational inertial effects. The standing wave phenomenon was successfully predicted, and computer animations of the standing waves phenomenon were carried out for the first time. The effects of different tyre inflation pressures and tyre axle loadings were thoroughly investigated with respect to their influences on the formation of standing waves, the tyre axle reaction forces, and the internal and contact energies consumed by the tyre. The parameters adopted in this FEA tyre model were validated against experimental work and showed excellent agreement. Three new approaches were addressed for the first time to the tyre standing waves phenomenon; they are: from the point of view of the vehicle|s vibration receptions from the tyre axle, from the point of view of the tyre energy loss, and from the point of view of the contact interface between the tyre and the test drum. These three viewpoints will reveal the influence and information of the dynamic response of the vehicle operating as a unity, the tyre itself, and the contact surfaces when the standing waves phenomenon occurs. The results showed that when the inflation pressure is reduced below the manufacturers recommended value and the tyre axle load is increased, the speed at which the standing wave forms is reduced, the vehicle vibration receptions, the energies consumed by the tyre and the contact interface are increased significantly, resulting in a rapid increase in tyre temperature, energy consumption, rolling resistance, and fatigue.
Keywords: finite-element analysis; tyre mechanics; tyre modelling; tyre standing waves.
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems, 2003 Vol.10 No.1/2, pp.86-111
Published online: 17 Jul 2003 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article