Title: 'Mode 3' and 'Quadruple Helix': toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem

Authors: Elias G. Carayannis, David F.J. Campbell

Addresses: Department of Information Systems and Technology Management, George Washington University, School of Business, Washington DC 20052, USA. ' Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (IFF), University of Klagenfurt, Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education Research, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna, Austria

Abstract: |Mode 3| allows and emphasises the co-existence and co-evolution of different knowledge and innovation paradigms: the competitiveness and superiority of a knowledge system is highly determined by its adaptive capacity to combine and integrate different knowledge and innovation modes via co-evolution, co-specialisation and co-opetition knowledge stock and flow dynamics. The |Quadruple Helix| emphasises the importance of also integrating the perspective of the media-based and culture-based public. What results is an emerging fractal knowledge and innovation ecosystem, well-configured for the knowledge economy and society.

Keywords: mode 3 innovation ecosystem; quadruple helix; innovation networks; knowledge clusters; knowledge fractals; glocal; academic firms; knowledge swings; conceptual branding; knowledge weavers; knowledge economy; knowledge society.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2009.023374

International Journal of Technology Management, 2009 Vol.46 No.3/4, pp.201 - 234

Published online: 20 Feb 2009 *

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