Title: A comparative evaluation of palladium and platinum nanoparticles as catalysts in proton exchange membrane electrochemical cells
Authors: Sergey A. Grigoriev, Vladimir N. Fateev, Hugh Middleton, Tor O. Saetre, Pierre Millet
Addresses: Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute, Moscow, Russia. ' Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute, Moscow, Russia. ' Faculty of Technology, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway. ' Faculty of Technology, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway. ' Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France
Abstract: The goal of the present study is the development and comparative characterisation of carbon-supported and nanostructured Pd- and Pt-based electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) H2/O2(air) fuel cells and proton reduction in PEM water electrolysers. Catalysts have been synthesised in a solution using a combined impregnation/reduction polyol method. They have been characterised using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and cyclic voltammetry. NanoPt, nanoPd and nanoPt-Pd catalysts deposited onto a carbon carrier have been used to prepare Membrane-Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) which, in turn, have been tested in PEM fuel cell and water electrolysis configuration. Using Pt0.5Pd0.5 (40 wt% on Vulcan XC-72) as a catalyst at the anodic side of a fuel cell, a typical cell voltage of 0.7 V was obtained at a current density of ca. 1.1 A cm−2. Using Pd (40 wt% on Vulcan XC-72) as a catalyst at the cathodic side of an electrolysis cell, a typical voltage of 1.70 V was obtained at a current density of 1 A cm−2. The electrochemical performances of the MEAs containing nanoPd-Vulcan were found similar to those obtained with nanoPt-Vulcan, either in fuel cell mode or electrolysis mode of operation. Palladium can, therefore, be used as an alternative catalyst for the hydrogen electrode in PEM electrochemical cells.
Keywords: palladium nanoparticles; platinum nanoparticles; catalysts; electrochemical cells; palladium-carbon; platinum-carbon; electrocatalysts; proton exchange membrane; PEM; fuel cells; electrolyser; hydrogen electrodes; nanotechnology.
International Journal of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Applications, 2008 Vol.1 No.4, pp.343 - 354
Published online: 09 Feb 2009 *Full-text access for editors Full-text access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article