Title: Materials for lithography in the nanoscale

Authors: Panagiotis Argitis, Dimitra Niakoula, Antonios M. Douvas, Evangelos Gogolides, Ioannis Raptis, Veroniki P. Vidali, Elias A. Couladouros

Addresses: Institute of Microelectronics and Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece. ' Institute of Microelectronics and Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece. ' Institute of Microelectronics and Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece. ' Institute of Microelectronics and Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece. ' Institute of Microelectronics and Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece. ' Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece; Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece. ' Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece; Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece

Abstract: Design and development of photoresists aiming at patterning in the nanoscale is reported. Functionalised polycarbocycle-based molecules and Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) containing (meth)acrylate copolymers are the basic components of the resist materials proposed for 193 nm and EUV lithography. The synthesis of new functionalised polycarbocycles aimed first at the development of etch resistance additives for 193 nm (meth) acrylate resists, since these compounds are characterised by moderate absorbance at 193 nm and by increased etch resistance due to the polyaromatic and cycloaliphatic rings they contain. Recently, additional functionalisation with appropriate imaging and hydrophilic groups advanced compounds of this class to become suitable main components of molecular resist compositions. On the other hand the incorporation of POSS groups in (meth)acrylate copolymers was studied first towards the development of 157 nm double layer resists, and recently, after the renewal of the semiconductor industry interest for 193 nm technology for double layer 193 nm resists. Characterisation methodologies for sub 100 nm thick resist films were also developed based on interferometry and used for the optimisation of the resist materials developed.

Keywords: lithography; photoresists; molecular resists; POSS; nanopatterning; resist materials; nanotechnology; Greece; functionalised polycarbocycles; etch resistance additives; resist films.

DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2009.021708

International Journal of Nanotechnology, 2009 Vol.6 No.1/2, pp.71 - 87

Published online: 30 Nov 2008 *

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