Title: A voucher-based penalty recycling, banking and trading proposal to induce gender equality in political representation

Authors: Ganga Prasad G. Rao

Addresses: 'Aparna' 19 New, 30 Old Janakiram Colony, Arumbakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600106, India

Abstract: Gender disparity and discrimination continues to be a pervasive phenomenon in many spheres of public life despite being targeted under the Millenium Development Goals. Nowhere is this bias more apparent than in political representation. The situation is critical in developing nations where gender inequality in political representation accompanies and reinforces other forms of gender suppression. This paper unearths a |gender externality| that prolongs gender suppression in political fora constituted by elected members. The externality justifies government intervention in electoral financing to restore gender equality. The paper proposes and presents the rationale behind a voucher-based, gender penalty recycling policy and demonstrates how it corrects this social externality. The proposed solution exemplifies the role of economics in social problems traditionally considered beyond its orb.

Keywords: electoral politics; electoral financing; gender externality; gender policy; vouchers; Millenium Development Goals; political representation; government intervention; gender penalty recycling; female candidates; gender discrimination; women politicians.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEPEE.2008.021284

International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, 2008 Vol.1 No.4, pp.388 - 426

Published online: 16 Nov 2008 *

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