Title: The effectiveness of biotechnology policies in Europe

Authors: Christien Enzing, Thomas Reiss

Addresses: TNO Innovation Policy Group, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft, The Netherlands. ' Department of Emerging Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract: The present study investigates what policy mixes are the most effective in fostering biotechnology innovations. An input-output approach has been used with a mix of biotechnology policy instruments at the input side and biotechnology performance in science and commercialisation at the output side. Policy mixes that include both generic and biotech-specific policy instruments which support both the science base and commercialisation activities correlate with higher performance levels. Countries that ascribe limited importance to the creation of generic and biotech-specific instruments for the stimulation of biotechnology also perform more weakly. Only generic research stimulating instruments in place is less effective; biotech-specific instruments seem to be more beneficial. All highly performing countries in commercialisation had both generic and biotech-specific instruments in place. The overall conclusion is that a well-balanced mix of generic and biotech-specific measures seems to be superior.

Keywords: biotechnology policies; policy effectiveness; policy mix; performance; EU member states; European Union; biotechnology innovation; policy instruments; science; commercialisation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBT.2008.019557

International Journal of Biotechnology, 2008 Vol.10 No.4, pp.327 - 340

Published online: 16 Jul 2008 *

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