Title: Exhaust emissions from in-use TWC cars driven in Nordic conditions: durability, stability and tune-up issues
Authors: Juhani Laurikko
Addresses: Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), VTT Energy, Engine Technology and Energy in Transportation, P.O. Box 1601, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland
Abstract: Exhaust emissions were determined from some 50 cars that have been in normal private service in Finland, which represent the typical Nordic climate with strongly varying ambient temperatures between summer and winter months. All cars were petrol fuelled and had an up-to-date emissions control system based on a three-way catalytic converter (TWC). Tested vehicles represented model years 1990-1996, and they had odometer readings from 10,000 km up to 373,000 km. The US FTP75 driving schedule was mainly used, but some cars were tested using the latest European cycle (||EC 2000||) with modified start procedure. These vehicles were also subject to a study of the implications of service on emissions. The paper presents an assessment of emissions control performance as a function of distance driven with normal TWC-cars that have been in day-to-day use. The paper presents also actual emission rates for typical in-service passenger cars that can be used e.g. in emission inventory calculations.
Keywords: exhaust emissions; in-use cars; catalytic converters; cold driving conditions.
International Journal of Vehicle Design, 2001 Vol.27 No.1/2/3/4, pp.44-54
Published online: 15 Aug 2003 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article