Authors: Chiara Boldrini, Marco Conti, Andrea Passarella
Addresses: CNR-IIT, Via G. Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy. ' CNR-IIT, Via G. Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy. ' CNR-IIT, Via G. Moruzzi, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Abstract: In opportunistic networks, end-to-end communication among users does not require a continuous end-to-end path between source and destination. Network protocols are designed to be extremely resilient to events such as long partitions, node disconnections, etc. which are very features of this type of self-organising ad hoc networks. This is achieved by temporarily storing messages at intermediate nodes, waiting for future opportunities to forward them towards the destination. Clearly, designing routing and forwarding schemes is one of the main challenges in this environment. In this article, we provide a survey of the main approaches to routing in purely infrastructure-less opportunistic networks, by classifying protocols based on the amount of context information they exploit. Then, we provide an extensive quantitative comparison between representatives of protocols that do not use any context information, and protocols that manage and exploit a rich set of context information. Mainly, we focus on the suitability of protocols to adapt to the dynamically changing network features, as resulting from the user movement patterns that are driven by their social behaviour. Our results show that context aware routing is extremely adaptive to dynamic networking scenarios, and, with respect to protocols that do not use any context information, is able to provide similar performance in terms of delay and loss rate, by using just a small fraction of the network resources.
Keywords: autonomic communication; context-aware routing; delay-tolerant networks; opportunistic networks; mobile networks; self-organising networks.
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, 2008 Vol.1 No.1, pp.122 - 147
Published online: 02 Jul 2008 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article