Authors: Ian D. Williams, Ian S. McCrae, Neil I. Ward, Nigel A. Richmond
Addresses: Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, Bounds Green Road, Bounds Green, London, N11 2NQ, UK. Environment Centre, Transport Research Laboratory, Old Wokingham Road, Crowthorne, Berkshire, RG11 6AU, UK. Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 5XH, UK. Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 5XH, UK
Abstract: Measurements of black smoke (BS), total suspended particulates (TSP) and selected trace element concentrations were made at two locations (four sites) in London, UK. One location was in Ealing, West London, the other was in Wood Green, North London. At each location, a residential and commercial roadside site was identified and monitored. The black smoke measurements were taken over 24-hour periods via a British standard 8-port smoke sampler situated inside a mobile laboratory. The TSP measurements were taken during peak traffic periods and 24-hour periods using glass fibre filters and high volume sampling pumps. At one site (the residential site at Wood Green), the TSP samples were analysed for 17 elements Pb, Zn, Br, Mg, Al, V, Fe, Sb, Mo, Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ba, Sn and Pt. After gravimetric analysis, the trace elements were extracted from the filter papers and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry. Two methods of extracting the trace elements were investigated, and the most efficient technique, the ||nitric-perchloric||, was used. Quantitative determinations of BS were made for a total of 98 and 115 days at the Ealing and Wood Green locations respectively during 1991/92. The average concentrations determined at the residential locations were 18.3 (Ealing) and 20.5 (Wood Green) µg/m³, respectively, and for the commercial sites the corresponding values were 30.6 and 69.5 µg/m³. The daily TSP values at the four sites are also reported and compared with measurements taken during the morning and afternoon rush hours. The particulate values reported here are discussed and compared with previously reported measurements in the UK. A total of 55 filter papers from the residential site at Wood Green were extracted for trace element analysis and the results are reported. Sufficient samples were collected to allow the data to be divided into morning, afternoon and 24-hour time periods, allowing comparison of the trends with the TSP data. The total and individual contributions of the trace elements to the particulate mass have been calculated and the most abundant trace elements (Zn, Pb, Br, Fe, Al, Mg) identified.
Keywords: black smoke; inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry; PM10; total suspended particulates; trace elements.
International Journal of Vehicle Design, 1998 Vol.20 No.1/2/3/4, pp.21-29
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