Title: Community viability and well-being in northernmost Europe: social change and cultural encounters, sustainable development and food security in Finland's North

Authors: Ludger Muller-Wille, Leo Granberg, Mika Helander, Lydia Heikkila, Anni-Siiri Lansman, Tuula Tuisku, Delia Berrouard

Addresses: Department of Geography, McGill University, 805, Rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada. ' Department of Social Psychology University of Helsinki, Box 54, FIN-00014, Finland. ' Centre for Research on Ethnic Relations and Nationalism, Swedish School of Social Science, University of Helsinki, Box 16, FIN-00014, Finland. ' SamiSoster Association Ounastie 2060, FIN-99410 Vuontisjarvi, Finland ' University of Oulu, Giellagas Institute of Saami Studies, Box 1000, FIN-90014, Finland. ' Thule Institute University of Oulu Box 7300, FIN-90014, Finland. ' Tuktut Nogait National Park of Canada, Box 91, Paulatuk, NWT X0E 1N0, Canada

Abstract: Northernmost Europe is characterised by diversity. Relations between indigenous (minority) and immigrant(majority) populations concern territorial claims, resource utilisation and human rights. Indigenous Sami feel encapsulated in centralised states. Norwegians, Swedes, Finns and Russians, historic immigrants, represent these states. The collapse of the Soviet Union effected cross-border relations. New structures have emerged stressing community viability. Developments have progressed in economic performance, human security, quality of life, education and health focusing of local activities such as reindeer herding. These conditions have an impact on transnational relations and community viability.

Keywords: community viability; socio-economic well-being; sustainable development; reindeer herding; food security; cultural encounters; northernmost Europe; Sami; Finns; Finland; sustainability; social change; community stresses; economic performance; human security; quality of life; education; health; transnational relations.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2008.018300

International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 2008 Vol.2 No.4, pp.331 - 353

Published online: 15 May 2008 *

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