Title: Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational factors affecting individuals' decisions about participating in action sports and an inquiry into participant action sports participatory fandom

Authors: S. Roger Park, Soonhwan Lee

Addresses: Department of Sport & P.E., Gonzaga University, 502 E. Boone Ave., Spokane, WA, USA. ' Department of Human Performance, Minnesota State University, 1400 Highland Center, Mankato, MN 56001, USA

Abstract: The purpose of this current study was to examine if the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ) (Gill et al., 1983) was still valid for action sports participants. This study also examined factorial invariance of motivational factors of action sports participation across genders. In other words, the study wanted to test the motivational factors of action sports participation assumed to underlie the motivational factors independently for the male and female college students. Based on the results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), the PMQ motivational factors of action sports participation do fit both male and female college students. The results of the multiple t-tests showed that female college action sports participants had higher motivation levels for achievement (p < 0.001), miscellaneous reasons (p < 0.01), skills development (p < 0.01), friendships (p < 0.01) and fun (p < 0.01).

Keywords: action sports; participatory fandom; participant motivation; multiple groups; confirmatory factor analysis; motivational factors; gender; male college students; female college students.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2008.017211

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2008 Vol.3 No.4, pp.348 - 357

Available online: 19 Feb 2008 *

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