Title: Optimisation of analytical method for estrogen in surface water and primary risk assessment in South Creek
Authors: Chunhua Li, Tony Tyler, Lukas Van Zwieten, Nanju Alice Lee, Ivan R. Kennedy
Addresses: University of Sydney, A03, Ross Street Building, NSW 2006, Australia. ' Environmental Centre of Excellence, NSW Department of Primary Industries, 1243 Bruxner Highway, Wollongbar NSW 2477, Australia. ' Environmental Centre of Excellence, NSW Department of Primary Industries, 1243 Bruxner Highway, Wollongbar NSW 2477, Australia. ' School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, University of NSW, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia. ' University of Sydney, A03, Ross Street Building, NSW 2006, Australia
Abstract: A very non-polar sorbent, polystyrene-divinyl-benzene (brand: biobeads supplied by BioRad, with 30∼50 mesh) was tested for its extraction efficiency of four target compounds, estrone, estradiol, ethynylestradiol and estriol, from larger volumes (8 l) of water samples. To achieve adequate sensitivity of instrumental analysis by GC/MS, an improved estrogen derivatisation method was developed. For the simultaneous determination of the four estrogens, 50 µl BSTFA+1% TMCS and 50 µl pyridine was used for the derivatisation. Ions of different masses, 342 for estrone and 425 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, were formed using this protocol. The residual derivatisation reagents and pyridine were completely removed under a stream of dry nitrogen. Using the optimised extraction and derivatisation protocol, estrogen levels in the South Creek in Sydney and the Emigrant Creek in North of New South Wales were analysed. The possible contribution of the discharges from wastewater treatment plant as a source of estrogens is discussed.
Keywords: estrogens; bio-beads; estrogen derivatisation; surface water; risk assessment; Australia; wastewater treatment; water pollution; water quality.
International Journal of Water, 2007 Vol.3 No.4, pp.334 - 346
Published online: 17 Dec 2007 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article